Volume-2 Issue-2

Autoimmune disorders: a brief appraisal


In general, a majority of diseases disrupting the normal system of human are essentially caused by bacteria or viruses. They somehow enter the human body and slowly erodes the functioning of the overall system. It is no surprise that sometimes our own cells may become enemies for us. They may cause severe disruptions in the normal function of the body. This particular aspect is categorised as autoimmune disorder.
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Yolk tumor on testicular ectopia about a case and review of the literature: Contribution of imaging


Malignant tumors of the testis are in 98% of cases germ cell tumors (GCTs), divided into pure seminomatous GCTs (PSGTs) and non-seminomatous GCTs (NSGTs) in 55 and 45% of cases [1]. Since 2016, the WHO classification takes into account their histogeneses and molecular characteristics.
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The Clinical-Medical-Images-Physiology of Preventive-Biomedicines-Mixture-Case Reports Improved Medical-Research-Science-Technology-Communication-Biodiversity-Wildlife-Conservation-Issues


The lockdowns and restriction of movements from 2019, the first-pandemic-outbreaks in Wuhan, China, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread worldwide quickly, badly affected our lives, physical activity, and sedentary behavior, food habits, etc., that intricately-linking-chronic-diseases, and the recent-pandemic-wave also starts from China again and may cause a high-transmission-rate with pathogenicity of mutant-coronavirus.
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Alveolar Hemorrhage: The typical aspect


We report the case of a 56 year-old patient, with a history of leukemia under treatment, who presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress associated to hemoptysis, chest pain and dyspnea NYHA stage IV with a decreased oxygen level to 85% on room air, a CBC revealed a bicytopenia. Plain radiograph showed a bilateral, peri hilar and basal alveolar syndrome, comparable to that observed in pulmonary oedema and thoracic CT scan showed bilateral and symmetrical hilifugal central ground glass areas.
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Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder


Bipolar disorder is a mental pathology that has been known since ancient times and has its origin in the concept of “mania,” a term that comes from the Greek “µανια,” meaning “madness” or “frenzy” [1-2]. Bipolar disorder, largely due to its chronic and recurrent course, poses an important burden for the patient, the family and the society and its treatment is essential to avoid the main complications of the disease.
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Gamna Gandy Bodies: The Tobacco Flex appearance


Splenic siderotic nodules, also known as Gamna Gandi’s bodies are nodules containing hemosiderin, fibrous tissue and calcium and result of small necrotic haemorrhagic focis in the spleen with a fibroblastic reaction leading to microarchitectural distorsion.
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Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis with holoproencephaly: Diagnosis and surgical management


Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare and unusual cause of neonatal nasal obstruction clinically mimicking bilateral choanal atresia [1, 3, 6]. The first clinical case was reported by Brown, et al in 1989 [9]. CNPAS is a result of abnormal development of the primary palate and bony overgrown of nasal process of maxilla that produces symptoms and signs of nasal obstruction in neonates and infants.
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Reversible Nonalcoholic Gaye Wernicke encephalopathy on imaging


A 65-year-old woman, who underwent a gastric cancer gastrectomy 4/5 20 years ago, was admitted to the emergency department for confusion syndrome with speech disorder without any other associated signs. Brain MRI (Figure 1, 2) was performed showing hyperintensity on Flair and diffusion on both sides of the third ventricle that extends to the thalamis, periaqueductal, and mammillary bodies.
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Imaging appearance of Ciliated Hepatic Cyst


A 41-year-old woman, without pathological history, presented right flank nephritic pain and microscopic hematuria. She was referred to our hospital for an uro-computerized tomography (CT) scan without urinary tract and intra-abdominal abnormalities.
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Spontaneous Rupture of the Spleen Due To Malaria A Case Report


Malaria is a mosquito borne illness that can infect human. Malaria infection ranges from febrile illness that can be easily treated to a life-threating condition that can be deadly. According to the WHO Malaria is endemic in Sudan and there is over 1.8 Million cases has been reported in 2019.
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Motor screening for kindergarten children - A systematic review


Only a few reviews indicate that different procedures exist that can screen the motor development status of kindergarten children. Their quality and underlying constructs of motor development are pointed out. The tests studied are mostly based on motor skills, abilities or competencies.
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Hemorrhoid Embolization. An Intense Anal Pain as a Complication of Superior Rectal Artery. Embolization with Embolic LIiquid and Coils


Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most prevalent medical disorders, its incidence ranging between 4 and 35% [1] in patients between 40-60 years of both sexes, being rare under 20 years [2]. Hemorrhoids are composed of a submucosal connective tissue associated with smooth muscle (Treizt muscle) and an arteriovenous network, forming pads located at the left, anterolateral and right posterolateral level in the anal canal, and there may be accessory plexuses between them.
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The delta variant; young people are more affected !!!


Coronaviruses are RNA viruses classified as Alpha coronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. Their name comes from their conformation with the presence of spicules forming a kind of crown. Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses (genus where zoonoses are observed) seem to originate from bats, while Gamma coronaviruses and Delta coronaviruses would originate from birds.
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Safety and Efficacy of Multiple Sirt Treatments with Resin Microspheres® Y-90, Combined with Surgery as Bridge/Downstage to Hepatic Transplant: A Case Report and Literature Review


HCC is a major global health problem, with 854,000 new cases and 810,000 deaths per year, one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death globally [1, 2]. HBV infection remains the leading aetiology worldwide, along with alcohol and HCV, with increasing incidence metabolic risk factor.
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Intensity modulated radiotherapy and targeted therapy for late nonregional para-aortic lymph node metastasis from HER2 positive breast carcinoma


Breast cancer (BC) is well known to metastasize to the entire organs by hematological spread to such as the bone, lung, liver, and the brain. It also tends to invade through the lymphatic chains mainly to the axillary nodes or occasionally to the internal mammary nodes.
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Every Syncope is not Benign


38 year old staff nurse with no prior co-morbidities presented with transient loss of consciousness lasted for 1-2 minutes for the last 2 years associated with blurring of vision. No report of seizure activity or post ictal state. She was relatively asymptomatic till the last 2 months.During the last episode she was driving and fell down from the vehicle and sustained injury to the back of head.
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A Case of Anti-NDMA Receptor Encephalitis with Bilateral Ovarian Teratomas


Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis precipitated by antibodies generated against NMDA receptors, resulting in abnormalities in behavior, cognition, memory, and movement. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is believed to affect one out of 1.5 million people per year and most commonly occurs as a paraneoplastic disorder associated with an ovarian teratoma.
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Hydatid Cyst of Gluteal Region: A Case Report


Hydatid cyst disease is an endemic parasitosis in Mediterranean region caused by Echinococcus granulosus, it is a public health problem, liver and lungs are most often affected but muscle localization is uncommon [1]. In this paper, we report a rare case of gluteal hydatic cyst, diagnosis and therapeutic modalities.
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Fatal outcome from the rapid progression of metastatic CNS ATRT


Central Nervous System (CNS) Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT) is a rare but highly aggressive form of embryonal brain tumor of infancy and early childhood and often presents with metastasis at diagnosis. Historically, therapies have led to a 2-year event free survival of mere 11% [1].
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Scalp involvement in Dermatomyositis


Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease included in the inflammatory myopathies whose symptoms can be cutaneous, muscular, or systemic, and it can affect adults and children [1]. Scalp involvement is common in patients with DM, however it is an understudied manifestation that has been poorly described.
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Heterotopic pregnancy


Heterotopic pregnancy is the coexistence of a living or dead intrauterine pregnancy, single or multiple and extra uterine pregnancy located in the oviduct, ovary, uterine corner, cervix or peritoneal cavity. The first case was described in 1708 – at that time the diagnosis was established during autopsy [1]. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus including hypovolemic shock, fetal loss and maternal mortality, and early diagnosis is critical [2].
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Rare Grade 3 Dermatologic Immune-Related Adverse Event: Psoriasis in Patient with Metastatic Lung Cancer, a Case Report


The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now standard of care for several cancers treatment, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to their mechanism of action blocking specific targets like Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/ Programmed Death-ligand 1 (Pd-L1) these drugs are associated with a specific toxicity profile
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Synchronous occurrence of intrahepatic, intraductal cholangiocarcinoma and rectal cancer


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer of all cancers with metastasis being the major cause of death in the majority of patients [1]. Metastatic rectal cancer often spreads to lungs, peritoneum, bones or the liver where it takes mostly the form of parenchymal mass and rarely the form of intraductal lesions making the diagnosis with intraductal cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) difficult.
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Midgut volvulus due to congenital malrotion in adults: A case report


Intestinal malrotation is an uncommon anomaly complicating approximately 0.2% of births. It is usually diagnosed during the first weeks of life. In adult it is extremely uncommon and rare cause of intestinal obstruction, it is incidence in adults can estimated between0.0001% to .19%.
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Role of Alpha Fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatocellular carcinoma is the 4th most common malignancy in worldwide and it is leading cause of cancer like disease in liver, and it exceed more than 1 million deaths per year by 2030 [1]. Acute hepatitis and acute liver failure are the most serious medical condition that require early diagnosis by release of IL6, TNF-α and elevated alanine amino transferases, aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and α -Fetoprotein that progress healthy liver.
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Asymptomatic Dandy-Walker Variant in adulthood: A Case Report and Review of the Literature


Dandy- Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare posterior fossa abnormality disorder first described in 1987 by Sutton and finally declared as a Dandy Walker syndrome by Benda in 1954. It is mainly characterized by hypoplasia of the vermis, cysts that communicates with the fourth ventricle and it is usually diagnosed intrauterine [1, 2].
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Bone Wax Extrusion Through Stump Wound After Above Knee Amputation: A Case Report


A 55-year-old male smoker with no other comorbidities was referred to our hospital with signs and symptoms of acute left lower limb ischemia, which was not salvageable. He underwent an above-knee amputation [AKA] to avoid sepsis and relieve pain. He was discharged on a therapeutic dose of Rivaroxaban as he had a past history of unprovoked venous thromboembolism.
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Epithelial mapping and topical antiglaucoma treatment: Early detector of ocular surface suffering?


At first, it might seem superfluous, what association can exist between lowering intraocular pressure and epithelial thickness? and if a relationship really exists, what is its importance and its therapeutic implication? The answer to this question is a yes. a relationship really does exist. The answer to the second question requires further reflection.
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Pustular Penile Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A puzzling clinical presentation


Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a recurrent, chronic inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. It is usually associated with an underlying systemic disease as inflammatory bowel disease or haematological malignancy.PG may occur anywhere on the body while it is classically described on the lower extremities [1].
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Motivation is Necessary for the Using of any Method of Contraception


It has been a little less than 100 years since the words birth control first appeared in print, but birth control, as a social practice, is as old as human history [1]. Since the beginning of civilization, women were expected to produce children from marriage to menopause, in a constant battle to birth more children than died in utero, in infancy, or of childhood disease.
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The Level of Study Group Involvement in AIS Presentations at the SRS Annual Meeting from 2008-2020


Within academic medicine, annual meetings of specialty societies serve as a forum for disseminating and discussing the most recent research conducted within a particular field of study. Several formats for data presentation exist, including Podium Presentations (PP), paper posters, and electronic posters. Within annual meetings, PP are reserved for the most up-to-date and highest-quality research to be delivered in an oral format to a large in-person audience, with the opportunity for audience questions and discussion.
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A case of Scrub Typhus presenting with high fever, eschar, septic shock, ARDS, acute kidney injury, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia and transaminitis in 50-year-old man coming back from Delta region of Myanmar


Scrub typhus, or tsutsugamushi fever, is a zoonotic disease, caused by Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi. It is first described in Japan in 1899; it is transmitted to humans by mite, an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family. Morbidity and mortality caused by rickettsioses have had a major influence on military activities and public health for over 2000 years [1].
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Accidental discovery of appendiceal carcinoma in gynecological surgery : a case report and literature review


Malignant tumors of the appendix are extremely rare, Incidence in gastrointestinal tumors was less than 1%. The appendix epithelial malignant tumors can be divided into three categories, including mucous adenocarcinoma of appendix(MAA), intestinal type of adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, Mucous adenocarcinoma of appendix is the most common histological type of the three groups
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Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Promising Radiological Biomarker of Disability, Disease Load, and Activity in Multiple Sclerosis


Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) advent has initiated a new era in the analysis of brain anatomy and connectivity as it added a powerful tool capable of reproducing white matter (WM) tract information, rather than classic imaging techniques, as conventional and / or functional MRI [1-3]. On the bases of DTI, tractography is able to reconstruct 3D trajectories of the tracts [4], and to study the anatomy of the white matter of the brain [5].
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COVID-19 Induced Cytokine Storm Manifesting as Takatsubo Cardiomyop- athy and Sepsis Reversed with Therapeutic Plasma Exchange


The pathophysiologic result of COVID-19 infection is complex and ranges from mild to severe disease. A process that plays a major role is the “cytokine storm” phenomenon which is essentially a hyperactive immune response similar to bacte- rial induced severe sepsis [1, 2, 3]. Many treatments have targeted specific components of this pathway with variable success.
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The effect of fluid therapy on maternal and neonatal acid-base status in elective cesarean section: A triple-blind, randomized, controlled trial


Perioperative fluid therapy remains a debated topic [1]. Its purpose is to maintain or restore circulating blood volume [2]. To achieve central euvolemia, patients undergoing sur- gery within an enhanced recovery protocol should have an individualized fluid management plan [3].
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Recent expeditious growth of type 1 diabetes in the Gulf Arab Countries


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common endocrine metabolic dis- ease affecting children and adults across the world. It is a chronic immune-mediated disease that is characterized by in- sulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell destruction leading to hyperglycemia and is often associated with serious acute and chronic complications [1-2].
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Malocclusion relationship-Dental Aesthetics Index in need of orthodontic treatment in Angolan population


Orthodontics is based on the concept of ideal occlusion, so it is essential to have a notion, as complete as possible, of normal or ideal occlusion so that it is possible to correctly di- agnose malocclusions. In normal occlusion defined by Angle, there is a molar relationship so that the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar and, in which the teeth are positioned in a slightly curved line of occlusion.
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Humerus fracture in an elder patient without movement disability: A case report


Humerus fractures are common osteoporotic fractures in the elderly .The majority of the fractures are minimally displaced and respond acceptably to non operative management [1]. An assessment of the patient’s bone quality, social indepen- dence, and surgical risk factors is needed.
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Emphysematous Cystitis - A rare cause for urosepsis


An 89 year old female with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hy- pertension and ischemic heart disease admitted to orthopedic department following intra-capsular neck of femur fracture. While awaiting Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty (AMH), she de- veloped lower abdominal pain, fever, features of acute cystitis, hematuria and pneumaturia.
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A new Tunisian case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis


Dirofilariasisis an emerging helminthic zoonosis seldom re- ported. Human involvement is a clinical entity caused by infec- tion with nematode species of the genus Dirofilaria. This cos- mopolitan zoonos is usually affecting dogs and cats. Humans are accidental hosts and rarely affected.
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Human toxocariasis: A rare parasitosis (about 16 cases)


Toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis with cosmopolitan distri- bution, due to the penetration and survival in humans of lar- vae of Toxocara sp. roundworms of the Ascarid family. Only two species, Toxocara canis and Toxocara catis, have been recognized as causative agents of human disease. The adults of both species are parasites of the digestive tract of their re- spective definitive hosts, the canids.
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Case Report of Post caesarian section Asherman’s Syndrome


Asherman’s syndrome is a syndrome that follows postpartum or postarbortal curettage, it might present with menstrual abnormalities such as oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hematometra, recurrent abortions, with the commonest presentation being infertility [1]. This pathology arises as a result of partial or complete adherence of the anterior and posterior wall of the uterus due to disruption of the basalis layer of the endometrium which can occur following postarbortal curettage, caesarian section
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Malrotation of the liver in a covid-19 patient


A 55-year-old male patient presented for severe COVID-19 in- fection. His chest X-ray showed elevation of the right hemidiaphragm. CT of the chest showed on the abdominal cuts a liver inverted in the antero-posterior plane: what was supposed to be the anterior surface is here lying against the posterior abdominal wall.
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Acute tetraparesis revealing acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse: A case report and literature review


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood and an important cause of death from cancer during the first two decades of life [1]. Global incidence rates have been estimated to be between 1.08 to 2.12 per 100,000 person-years, the condition being four times more frequent in childhood than in adulthood [2].
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L3 Gene: Exploring the Presence in Syrian Strain of Leishmania Tropica Genome


Leishmaniasis represents a serious issue in developing countries, the estimated number of cases reaches up to 0.9 to 1.3 million case every year. About ninety tropical and subtropical countries have leishmaniasis as a plague disease, with approximately 350 million people who are in the danger circle to get the disease.

Paediatric airway and challenges during COVID


Airway management of patients during this pandemic of COVID times is a great challenging task. Pediatric patients are even more challenging due to less available guidance and protocols. Many routine pre–COVID-19 practices, such as mask induction of general anaesthesia in anxious, crying, and agitated children or carrying them into the operating room (OR), may be less desirable because of the risk of viral exposure to the OT staff.
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Successfully treated case of cerebral aspergillosis in sri lanka


Fungi of genus Aspergillus are ubiquitous in the environment [1]. Inhalation of Aspergillus spores may lead to invasive in- fection known as aspergillosis, which is commonly seen in im- munocompromised population [1]. Cerebral aspergillosis is a grave condition with high mortality [1].
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Benign Ovarian Dermoid: A Rare Cause of Sigmoid-Ovarian Fistula


A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal communication of part of the intestine with the skin (external fistula) or adjacent organs (internal). In the vast majority of cases (75 – 85%), they occur as a post-operative complication of surgery on gastroin- testinal tract; occasionally, they occur spontaneously, second- ary to inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, radiation, malignancy or trauma [1, 2].
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A Case of Neglected Classıc Kaposı’s Sarcoma


Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare disease in the community. It was first described in 1872 as an idiopathic, multipigmented sarcoma of the skin [1]. It is a vascular or lymphatic-focused tumor type originating from the endothelium, caused by Hu- man Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8), called KS-associated herpes virus (KSHV) [2]. There are 4 clinical subtypes of the disease. These are: Classical KS, African endemic KS, iatrogenic KS, and AIDS- related (epidemic) KS
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Aberrant left subclavian artery with Kommerell’s diverticulum and right sided aortic arch: hybrid approach


Combination of right sided aorta and aberrant left subclavian retro-esophageal artery originates from a Kommerell’s diver- ticulum is a rare entity and its treatment remains complex. Here we reported a case of a 58 years-old woman presenting dysphagia to share technical aspects and challenges of endo- vascular management.
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Inguino-Scrotal Textiloma After Surgery: About A Rare Case


Gossypiboma (from the Latin Gossypium = cotton and Swahili boma = hiding place) also called Textiloma (from the Greek textile and ome = tumor) is defined as the inadvertent reten- tion of a textile foreign body after surgery. This is probably the oldest and most obvious mistake in surgery [1].
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Feature Selection Based Fuzzy Expert System for Efficient Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. It has been estimated that nearly one half of all middle-aged men and one third of middle-aged women in the United States have been affected with the CAD disease [46, 50]. In the developed countries CAD is one of the number one killers with over 7.4 million deaths attributed to [29, 48].
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The role of the chemokine receptor CCR7 in cancer progression


Chemokines are a large family of chemotactic cytokines com- prised of more than 50 structurally related polypeptides that act on 22 heterotrimeric Gαi-protein-coupled receptors (GP- CRs) [1, 2]. Based on the presence of key cysteine residues, chemokines are classified into four subgroups (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C). They control B-cell development, growth, and survival, and modulate levels of subsets of T-cells.
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Immunotherapy-Induced Thyroiditis in Cancer Patients


Immunotherapy treatments have become an integral part of cancer therapy. Though they are effective therapeutic agents, they can cause several side effects, including endocrine, gas- trointestinal, and dermatologic toxicity [1]. An uncommon side effect of these treatments is autoimmune thyroiditis, which can present in an atypical manner.
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Review article -Reinfection scenario of patients who recovered from COVID-19 and relation with viral genetic diversity


Coronaviruses were first recorded in the 1960s. At the end of November 2019, an epidemic of acute respiratory infections rapidly spread in Wuhan, China. It was due to a new coronavi- rus, lastly named SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is high- ly infective, with the ability to spread directly through human transmission by the airways, and the epidemic spread quickly worldwide.
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Fracture of the lateral process of the talus


An 18 year old woman presented to the Emergency Depart- ment with an inversion injury to the right ankle following a fall walking downstairs at home. She was unable to weight bear. On examination, swelling and tenderness was present on the medial and lateral aspects of the ankle.
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Robotic surgical management for extremely high-risk prostate cancer: case report and overview of recent literature evidences in the setting


Radical prostatectomy is recommended as a part of the mul- timodal treatment of high-risk or clinically advanced non- metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In those cases, surgery could be challenging due to the possible cancerous invasion of peri- prostatic tissues that adversely affect the exposition and dis- section.
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Sub-Clavicular Hibernoma: A Rare Diagnosis of Lipomatous Tumor


Lipomatous tumors including a large variety of benign and malignant lesions are the most common soft tissue tumors, their prevalence increasing with age [1]. Sometimes, overlapping imaging features can be misleading in diagnosis [2]. Since the distinction between benign and malignant lipomatous tumor is challenging, especially when based on clinical and superficial work-up, the differential diagnosis of lipomatous tumors includes hibernoma.
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Review on Computational Models for Prostate Segmentation from Ultrasound Medical Images


The crucial task of image processing is to the extraction of the required content of information from the input image without affecting other features. The medical apparatus always generates the de-noised image of the specific organs and the same is given as input to segmentation. The purpose of image segmentation is to identify the exact region of interest in medical images for further analysis.
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Publications trends in major anesthesiology journals: A 20-year analysis of five top-ranked journals in the field


The scientific productivity of a institution or person in medical research is reflected by the number of published articles [1]. However, both medical science and publication options have changed dramatically over the last several years. Publishing medical data in the new open access journals (OAJs) and via the World Wide Web (WWW) has gained significant importance recently.
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A 12 Day- Old Female Infant Diagnosed with Pelvic Osteomyelitis in the Pediatric Emergency Department


Osteomyelitis often occurs secondary to the hematogenous spread of microorganisms into the blood-rich metaphysis of the developing bone. When left untreated, it leads to complications such as joint destruction and decreased range of motion [1]. Osteomyelitis (OM) of the hip is rare in newborns. Signs and symptoms are quite different compared to older children. This may cause difficulties/delays in diagnosis and permanent disability.
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Depression among university students during Vietnam’s fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic


The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes acute respiratory distress syndrome, was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China [1]. In Vietnam, the first case recorded on January 17, 2020, was a woman returning from Wuhan city, China [2]. As of November 4, 2021, Vietnam has experienced four waves of COVID-19, with the total number reaching 946,043 cases.
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A mysterious intra-cardiac needle discovered accidentally during pericardiothentesis under fluoroscopy


Intra-cardiac sewing needles detected in adults and children may be due to accidental penetration e.g. while sleeping, selfinflicted as a result of mental and psychic disorders or domestic abuse [1, 2]. Due to the rarity of retained intra-cardiac sewing needles, no clear guidelines exist regarding the indication for their extraction.
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