Short Communication - Volume 2 - Issue 6

Overview of Cancers

Nur Aifiah Binti Ibrahim*

81200 Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia.

Received Date : Sep 28, 2022
Accepted Date : Nov 03, 2022
Published Date: Nov 26, 2022
Copyright:© Binti Ibrahim NA 2022

*Corresponding Author : Binti Ibrahim NA, No. 4, Jalan Puchong 2, Taman Perling, 81200 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

Cancer is a non-communicable disease that emerged without any definite cause [1]. According to [1] nearly 10 million deaths in 2020 due to cancer accounted for one in six deaths. There are several types of cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate cancers [1]. WHO (2022) had reported one-third of the causes of cancer are due to poor lifestyle choices such as tobacco smoking, high body mass index, alcohol intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, and lack of physical activity. The viral infections may cause cancer (Ho, 2016). For instance,[1] had also added that the human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis viruses are the causative agents in 30% of cancer cases in low and lower-middle-income countries. Cancer is curable if treated in its early stages.

Cancer is a disease in which some of the body's cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body [2]. Cancer is a generic term for diseases that can affect any part of the body (WHO, 2022). WHO (2022) had mentioned other terms used to describe cancer, such as malignant tumors and neoplasms. According to WHO (2022), the overgrowth of abnormal cells infiltrates into adjoining parts of the body and spreadsto other organs. The latter process is called metastasis (WHO, 2022). WHO (2022) had added that widespread metastases may become the primary cause of death. Hence, WHO (2022) and [2] had accumulated nearly 10 million deaths due to cancer in 2020. According to WHO (2022), the most common causes of death due to cancer in 2020 are lung (1.80 million deaths), colon and rectum (916 000 deaths), liver (830 000 deaths), stomach (769 000 deaths), and breast (685 000 deaths).

As mentioned before by [1,2] cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, colon and rectum, prostate, skin, and stomach. [2] had found 100 different types of cancer. According to the [2], the naming of cancer is determined based on the location of the tumor in tissues and organs. Besides that, cancer can also arise from cells called epithelial cells or squamous cells [2]. Hence, cancers are named according to the type of cells they originated from, such as carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, melanoma, and brain and spinal cord tumors [2].

The first one is carcinoma which is the most common type of cancer [3] had found some examples of carcinoma, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Sarcoma originated in the tissues that support and connect the body [3]. For instance, fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, blood vessels, lymph vessels, cartilage, or bone [3]. Based on [3], leukemia is another type of cancer that originates from cells that form white blood cells. [3] had also mentioned types of leukemia, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Lymphoma covers the network of vessels and glands that help fight infection [3]. They are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [3].

[4] had enlisted the general risk factors of cancer, such as age, family history, tobacco consumption, obesity, alcohol intake, human papillomavirus, and exposure to radiation (ultraviolet from the sun). The risk factors can be modifiable or unmodifiable. The modifiable risk factors are tobacco consumption, obesity, alcohol intake, and radiation exposure. The unmodifiable risk factors of cancer are age, family history, and human papillomavirus. [4] had found that a cancer screening test, mammogram, or colonoscopy not only detects cancer but at an earlier age. The continuity of doing so will help to follow up on the progression of the disease and make some changes to their health profiles.

It is crucial to have an optional treatment for killing cancerous cells. During the early stages of cancer, surgery would be able to remove the tumor before it is reaching to the other tissues. Then, radiation is another word for exposure to rays that can lock in the target and kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is in the form of drugs that will also aim and kill the cancer cells. The patient should receive more care and support after hospitalization.

Early detection of cancer may assist in careful planning and avoid any cancerous cells from spreading to other parts of the body. Doctors will do their best to improve their treatment with more careful consideration and planning.Doctors from different specialties work in a team to fight cancers with various modalities of their expertise. They will continue to excel and reach for the stars. Survivors continue to climb at different stages where there is no limit to their voices and hopes along the way.


  1. World Health Organization. 2022. Cancer.
  2. National Cancer Institute. 2021. What is Cancer?.,up%20of%20trillions%20of%20cells.
  3. Cancer.Net. 2019. What is Cancer?.
  4. Cancer.Net. 2018. Understanding Cancer Risk.
  5. Anticancer Drugs and Chemotherapy. 2019. Retrieved from
  6. Breast Cancer: Casuses and Treatment. 2019. Retrieved from