• ISSN Number

    ISSN 2771-019X
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Volume-3, Issue-2

Central serous chorioretinopathy of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy: A rare cause of visual acuity loss in pregnancy!

   We report a case of a young female patient aged 26, 32 weeks pregnant, with no particular medical and surgical history, who consulted for decrease in visual acuity. Clinical examination found visual acuity reduced to 02/10 in OS and counting the fingers in OD. The examination of the fundus founds a loss of the foveolar reflex. A macular OCT objectify bilateral serous retinal detachment (Figure 1A). The diagnosis of temporary central serous chorioretinopathy in pregnancy was made.

Cerebral radionecrosis following skin epidermoid carcinoma’s irradiation: A case report

   Radiotherapy is a major treatment of several tumors, allowing a statistically increased progression-free survival [1]. This treatment can be used alone but also associated with surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy. Like every treatment, it can have side effects [2], mainly depending on the irradiated zone. Among them, we will focus on radionecrosis, especially cerebral radionecrosis.

Mastoid adenocarcinoma revealed by chronic otitis media

   Malignant tumors of the mastoid and middle ear are rare. Squamous cell carcinoma being the most common malignancy in head and neck region, is also most common variety found in temporal bone tumors [1]. Other varieties are adenocarcinoma, adenocystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, ceruminous carcinoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. The incidence of primary temporal bone tumors ranges between 0.03-1.0 per 100000 per year and approximately 60-80-% are squamous cell carcinoma [2].

Study on three cases of kids with Wilson disease complex with nephrotic syndrome

   Hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD), first described through Wilson in 1912, is likewise called Wilson disease (WD) and is an autosomal recessive ailment of copper metabolism wherein the causative gene ATP7B on the long arm of chromosome 13 is mutated, even as the ATP7B gene encodes the copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphate (ATPase) protein, and if the ATP7B protein is absent or reduced in function, copper cannot correctly bind to ceruloplasmin, in order that copper can't be excreted into the gut through the biliary tract, which results in intracellular loose copper deposition in other organs and causes its damage [1, 2].

The impact of being bullied during childhood on lower academic performance among secondary school students in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    Mental well-being is a fundamental component of the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health, and the core of mental health action with the principle “no health without mental health” was globally accepted [1]. The mental well-being of adolescents is a crucial issue affecting the lives of both adults and young people [2]. Globally, mental health problems account for 13% of the total burden of disease, and 31% of all years lived with disability [3]. For most mental health disorders their first onset occurs in childhood or adolescence with the severe mental disorders typically preceded by less severe events, thus leading to failure to detect and treat for years [4].

The problem of ICNIRP (safety)-guidelines

   Worldwide there is an increasing number of healthy problems by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures, namely produced by wireless telecommunication techniques. But the safety guidelines by ICNIRP (International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection) accept only a thermal effect in biosystems, given by a maximal immission of 10 W/m² for these electromagnetic fields. This value was tested by EMFexposures with the aim of maximal temperature increase of 0,5 K in a dead human body by 6 min exposure (A-Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf).

Conjunctival nevus superimposed on a Pterygium, with a possible corneal involvement: A challenging case

    The presented photograph shows a suspicious lesion of conjunctival nevus in a 42-year-old patient. The patient reported that the lesion has been present since childhood and she does not believe that it has increased in size. The lesion is located near the temporal limbus and is superimposed on an early pterygium. There is also evidence of corneal invasion, possibly by the pterygium or the lesion. The lesion measures approximately 5 mm x 6 mm in diameter, is brownish in color, and presents irregular pigmentation and slight elevation.

Morphometric Relationships between Permanent Maxillary Central Incisors and Face Among a Sample of Yemeni Population

   The social attractiveness of individuals could be influenced by their dental-facial appearance [1]. Several patients nowadays undergo dental treatments for solving their concerns about dental appearance since seeing patients with tooth defects or multiple missing anterior teeth is common in the esthetic dentistry practice. For a successful esthetic treatment, it is extremely essential to identify the dimensions of restorations for these anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors (MCIs) [2], which are the most dominant in the anterior area when speaking or smiling [3].

Infective endocarditis- A systematic review with risk factors, etiopathogenesis and newer diagnostic and prophylaxis recommendations

   Infective endocarditis is a relatively rare disease but significant because of its high inpatient and 1 year mortality rate of 20-25%. It leaves its mark with long lasting complications even in patients who get cured. It was first described by French physician Lazare Rivière more than 350 years ago. William Osler at the end of the 19th century successfully elaborated the clinical manifestations of the infection on heart valves and mural endocardium.

Lifestyle behavior among Post - Graduate medical students in Jhalawar Medical College: A cross-sectional study

   Health behaviours can be defined as the reactive, habitual, or intentional forms of human activity, which remain significantly intertwined with health. Health behaviours include both ProHealth activities (e.g., healthy diet) and anti-health activities (e.g., cigarette smoking) [1]. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are determined to be increasing around the globe due to lifestyle-related behavioral risk factors including physical inactivity and dietary transitions such increased intake of high-fat and low-fiber diets.

A rare presentation of ecthyma gangrenosum-like lesions due to Staphylococcus Lentus in an immunocompetent adult

   Ecthyma gangrenosum is a well-recognized cutaneous infection mostly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Other pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp.,E.Coli, Candida sp.& other gram-negative bacteria have also been implicated in etiopathogenesis of Ecthyma gangrenosum. Impaired humoral immunity or cellular immunity associated with breakdown of innate immune barriers (skin or mucosal ulcerations) has been implicated for the development of this skin infection [2].

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of standard Precautions among Selected Health care Workers in University of Port Hacourt Teaching Hospital,Rivers State

   A set of guidelines aimed at protecting health care workers (HCWs) from blood-borne infections is known as universal precautions (1). The concept of "universal precautions" was first proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1987 to protect health care workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Prolactinoma and Pregnancy Case report

   Pregnancy in a patient with a secreting or non-secreting pituitary adenoma or ante- or post-pituitary insufficiency is a rare possibility in clinical practice.Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas that cause infertility owing to anovulation. Medical or surgical treatment restores normal fertility in 80 to 90% of patients.

Is Scaffolding Iliac Bone Graft Within Titanium Mesh Successful in Reconstructing Unilateral Large-Sized Mandibular Contour Defects?

   The appearance of the lower third of the face is mainly determined by mandibular bony contour, so patients with unilateral mandibular contour defects due to congenital hypoplasia, trauma, surgical resection, tumor, or any other etiology would suffer significant facial asymmetry [1]. This deformity is a significant clinical challenge for surgeons and patients [1].

Myelinated Retinal Nerve Fibers

   We report a case of a 25-year-old-woman, with no pathological history. The patient presented to ophthalmology consultation for a routine eye examination. Her Uncorrected visual acuity was 10/10 for both eyes. On slit lamp examination, anterior segment was normal, while fundus examination was found to have on the left eye, a flat grayish- white area with irregular borders concentric to the optic disc.

Acute Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in two newly diagnosed adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Eating Disorder

   Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is the most common type of diabetes among children and adolescents, accounting worldwide for ≥ 85% of all diabetes cases in patients under 20 years old [1]. The related chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications are associated with high long-term risk for morbidity and early mortality. According to ADA Consensus Statement (San Antonio, 1988), Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is "a descriptive term meaning a demonstrable disorder, either clinically or sub-clinically evident, that occurs in the setting of Diabetes Mellitus without other causes for peripheral neuropathy.

Bonding in orthodontics and Role of different types of brackets – A Literature review

   The introduction of bonding to orthodontics added a new dimension to fixed appliance therapy. With a considerable reduction in the need for banding teeth, there was an improvement in patient comfort, esthetics and oral hygiene maintenance. The incidence of caries was reduced as well as chair side time and there were no inter proximal spaces left after finishing the treatment.

Acute brain Injury/acute lung injury as life-threatening organ Dysfunction and with outcomes due to sepsis

   Sepsis related acute brain injury(ABI) and acute lung injury(ALI) is the life-threatening organ dysfunction following critical illness.1-3 The ascending reticulum activation system (ARAS) is located in the bilateral thalamus and midbrain , as a wake-up "switch"(Fig. 1, A and B) , which is very sensitive to ischemia and hypoxia, if simultaneous closed in bilateral will lead to ABL/acute coma.

Thromboembolism: An unusual way of tissue diagnosis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lungs

   Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of mortality secondary to malignancy in both genders. [1] The presentation of lung carcinoma varies from being asymptomatic, detected incidentally on imaging to overt respiratory symptoms secondary to local invasion by tumor mass or related to metastasic invasion or systemic findings. [2] Usually the tissue diagnosis is obtained by biopsy of the primary lesion or the accessible metastatic site.

Gender Disparity in the Management of Diabetes Among Residents of Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

   Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide problem that plagues the modern day society. The prevalence of DM is on the increase in many countries of the world, including Nigeria where about 6% of the entire population (12 million people) live with the condition (Uloko et al., 2018). Several hospitals across Nigeria provide treatment and management regimen for diabetic patients (Okoronkwo et al., 2016). However there is evidence of the possibility of gender-dependent disparity in the level of management of the condition (Sacks et al., 2017).

Concomitant Occurrence of Non-cirrhotic Portal Hypertension, Multiple Acute Cerebral Infarcts, and Lupus Nephritis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

   On April 05, 2019, a 35-year-old woman, who had had hypertension for 1 year, was admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department of Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital due to abdominal distension, abdominal pain and edema in the lower extremities (which had been occurring for more than one month), and melaena (which had been occurring for 2 days). Before admission, the patient had recently undergone gastroscopic examination at a county-level hospital, which showed esophageal varices presenting as positive 'red signs', and chronic non-atrophic gastritis with remote hemorrhaging.

Refractory Multifocal Coronary Artery Spasm : Case report and literature review focusing on the treatment

   Vasospastic angina, which was previously referred to as Prinzmetal or variant angina, is a clinical entity characterized by episodes of rest angina that promptly respond to short-acting nitrates and are attributable to coronary artery vasospasm (1).The diagnosis of diffuse multifocal spasm can be quite challenging and it could be easily mistaken for diffuse coronary artery disease , leading to unnecessary interventions.

Intragastric fat and air trapping: Sign of Bezoar

   The "bezoar" is a rare cause of intestinal occlusion , it corresponds to the unusual accumulation, in the form of solid masse or concretion, of substances of various natures inside the digestive tract and more particularly in the stomach. The nature of these substances determines the type of bezoar[1].

Uterine artery embolization for the management of vaginal bleeding in endometrial cancer and ACS condition

   A 76-year-old female with a history of hypothyroidism, arterial hypertension, Dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus type 2 presented with vaginal bleeding that is diagnosed endometrial cancer for her. She had exertional chest pain function class 3. Coronary CT angiography was done and multiple significant lesions in mid part of the right coronary artery( RCA) and mid part of the left anterior descending artery( LAD) were noted.

The Role of T Cells and Innate Immunity in Long-Term Immunity and Vaccine Development for COVID-19

   Coronaviruses are significant pathogens for humans and animals. In late 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread resulting in a global epidemic [31]. This new virus, called COVID-19, led to millions of cases and deaths, with symptoms including high fever, cough, and shortness of breath. The COVID-19 virus is a beta coronavirus similar to the SARS-CoV virus and may use the same receptor for cell entry [1]. It is also 96% identical to a bat coronavirus at the wholegenome level [2-8].

Atoll sign : l’éventail diagnostic

   The atoll sign or inverted halot sign is seen on high-resolution chest CT scans as a central frosted glass area surrounded by peripheral condensation in a ring or crescent, the contours of which may be smooth or spiculated [1]. Histologically, the central zone (ground glass opacity) corresponds to alveolar septal inflammation and cellular debris in the alveolar spaces, while the condensed peripheral zone corresponds to granulomatous tissue in the distal air spaces [2].

Lymphangioleiomyomatose Pulmonaire (lAM) : Image typique au scanner Thoracique

   Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease characterized by interstitial proliferation of cells resembling dystrophic smooth muscle cells. It can occur sporadically or as part of a genetic disease; tuberous sclerosis of Bourneville. This condition mainly affects young women of childbearing age, however it can occur after menopause [1].

Health Literacy: The Most Neglected Essential Human Quality

   Understanding common health care communications, such as prescription instructions, test results, and insurance forms, is referred to as health literacy. Health literacy improves a population's ability to care for themselves and aids in the reduction of health disparities. It has an impact on the use of health services, as well as on patient satisfaction and the physicianpatient relationship. It is one of the major impediments to healthcare professionals adequately transmitting information to those under their care.

Concomitant Bullous and Crusted Scabies: A Rare Presentation

   Human scabies is a highly contagious skin condition caused by an infestation of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites burrow into the upper layers of the skin and lay their eggs, causing intense itching (pruritus) and characteristic linear burrows. The most common symptoms of scabies include intense itching, especially at night, and a rash with small red bumps and blisters. There are several atypical clinical variants of scabies, including bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular, and scalp scabies. Bullous scabies is an uncommon variant, characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters (bullae) on the skin.

Jejunojejunal Intussusception- A rare complication of Feeding Jejunostomy

   After a month of corrosive consumption, a 35-year-old male patient was taken to the hospital with complaints of total dysphagia. The feeding jejunostomy was created by using the Whitzels technique and a 14 Fr nasogastric tube. After initiating the feeds through FJ, the patient was discharged. Three months later, the patient complained of colicky stomach pain and distension. The patient's relatives reported that the feeds are being obstructed. Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography scan (CECT) abdomen was performed with the clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction.

An unusual Bilateral cicatrizing conjunctivitis in severe ocular rosacea

   Rosacea is a multifactorial, chronic, inflammatory dermatological condition that affects forehead, eyelids, cheeks, nose and chin [1]. In most cases, the disease progresses in a relapsing and course, with exacerbations that can be triggered by exposure to ultra-violet radiation, spicy foods, or heat [2]. It is often overlooked by ophthalmologists, as ocular manifestations precede cutaneous disease in 15% of cases [3]. More than 50% of individuals have ocular abnormalities, which can range from minor dryness and irritation, blepharitis and conjunctivitis to sight-threatening keratitis [4].

Valsalva retinopathy during childbirth: a case report and literature review

   Valsalva retinopathy is a specific form of retinopathy characterized by pre-retinal, subhyaloid, sub internal limiting membrane or vitreous haemorrhage [1]. It may occur unilateral or bilateral. It happens due to a sudden rise in intrathoracic or intra-abdominal pressure, which is transmitted to the perifoveal superficial retinal capillaries causing in their rupture a hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane [2,3]. It is often encountered in young and middle-aged people who present with sudden diminution of vision which can vary from a subtle scotoma to total vision loss [4].

Choroidal granuloma as an initial manifestation of systemic tuberculosis: a case report

   Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs and rarely the eyes. Ocular tuberculosis (OTB) is a common cause of uveitis in North Africa and and can be challenging to definitively diagnose. Frequently, diagnoses of presumed OTB is based on a positive tuberculosis test, exclusion of other causes of uveitis, and careful consideration of the patient's history and fundus examination [1].

Meta-analysis of clinical trials of transcranial magnetic stimulation for chronic pelvic pain syndrome

   Chronic pelvic pain is a group of diseases or complexes caused by multiple functional and/or organic causes and lasting for more than 6 months, with pain in the pelvis and surrounding tissues as the main symptom sign [1,2]. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a complex of conditions including endometriosis, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and pudendal neuralgia that affects 15% to 25% of women [3,4], who are bothered not only by persistent severe pain but also by gastrointestinal problems and emotional changes.

Ketamine abuse: Another side of the miracle drug ( A case report)

   Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) antagonist, a mu and sigma opioid receptor agonist and has a long history of use as an anaesthetic agent in humans and in veterinary Medicine [1]. New findings about ketamine's antidepressant and antisuicidal characteristics give hopes for an effective treatment for major depressive disorder [2].

Nutritional potential of fruit, bark and leaves of Terminalia catappa

   Terminalia catappa (TC) is a multifunctional tree that is easily found in the Asia, Australia, the Pacific, Madagascar and Seychelles. [1], stated that T. catappa is a decorative tree which is widely planted in many countries. Ecologically, fruit of T. catappa is widely used as a food source for small mammals such as squirrels and bats. The leaf of T. catappa is a functional food to relieve symptoms of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases [2]. In addition to leaves, seeds of T. catappa are rich in nutritional value and fibre, so they are also known as tropical almonds (Figure 1) with high fat content and energy value [3].

Adverse effects of Synergic factors at play during Intestinal Parasitism in Pregnancy

   Parasites infect pregnant women with relatively high frequency [1-3]. It is a consequence of two interacting physiological processes that occurs in the woman during pregnancy: the natural modulation of her immune responses and the occurrence of changes in her microbiota, both necessary for the healthy development of the fetus [1,4]. Intestinal parasitism (IP) is a widely extended public health problem, resulting in significant morbidity and disabilities.

Unusual presentation of Giant Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

   Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon superficial soft tissue sarcoma [1], accounts for <0.1% of all the cutaneous neoplasms and 1.8 % of all soft tissue's sarcomas [2], is defined by the World Health Organization as a superficial sarcoma with slow growth, locally aggressive and with low metastatic potential [3]. DFSP was first described by Sherwell and Taylor in 1890. In 1924, F.J. Darier and M. Ferrand described it as a progressive and relapsing dermatofibroma. Also, they emphasized the evolving and recurrent nature of the tumor[4].

A Few Words about Modern Genetics

   Some of the maximum critical latest discoveries approximately conduct contain genetics [1]. For instance, autism is a extreme ailment starting early in youth wherein youngsters withdraw socially, now no longer undertaking eye touch or physical touch, with marked conversation defcits and stereotyped conduct. Until the 1980s, autism become concept to be environmentally due to cold, rejecting dad and mom or with the aid of using mind damage. But genetic research evaluating the danger for same twins, who're same genetically (like clones), and fraternal twins, who're most effective 50 percentage comparable genetically, imply vast genetic infuence.

A Retained Microcatheter Fragment in the middle cerebral artery: report of a rare complication

   The efficacy and safety of thrombectomy for acute large vessel occlusion have been demonstrated by several ran-domized studies and supported by class A, level 1 evidence [1]. The two accepted treatment options that can be used alone or in combination are stent retriever or aspiration thrombectomy [2, 3]. Although the use of the treatment is increasing worldwide, there are technical complications which include recanalisation failure, distal embolization to target or new vessel territory, risk of symptomatic or asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and procedure-related complications [4].

Post - traumatic iris cyst

   A 7- year- old girl was referred to our center with impression of crystalline lens subluxation. She had sustained a penetrating injury in the right eye one year ago, and had undergone surgical repair of the wound at another center. The best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/40 and 20/20 for the left eye. In the right eye a corneal scar was noted in the inferior cornea at 6 o’clock with adjacent corneal vascularization (panel A). Also, a cyst of the iris was seen in the retro pupillary area of the right eye (panel A).

Dysregulation of Expression of the FOXO3 Transcription Factors Pathway in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Cancer

   Gastric cancer has become one of the most common neoplasms in the world. In Brazil, it is the third most frequent type of cancer among men and the fifth among women with approximately 13,360 new cases in men and 7,870 in women in 2020 [1]. Gastric cancer is considered a multifactorial neoplasm and its development depends on the participation of different factors, which may be genetic and/or environmental. Numerous studies have sought to explain the development/ etiology of gastric cancer and suggested a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations, mainly in tumor suppressor genes [2,3,4].

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