• ISSN Number

    ISSN 2771-019X
  • Impact Factor


Volume-4, Issue-3

Case report and literature review of primary retroperitoneal thyroid carcinoma

   The patient is a 56-year-old female. She was admitted to hos- pital on September 6, 2018 due to “left retroperitoneal mass found by CT for half a year”; Physical examination showed: T36.7oC, P80 times/min, R20 times/min, BP101/65 mmHg, no eminence in the bilateral renal area, slight percussion pain in the bilateral renal area, no tenderness in the bilateral ureteral travel area, no obvious filling or tenderness in the bladder area. Auxiliary examination: Contrast-enhanced CT scan in the middle and upper abdomen showed two types of circular nodules with near soft tissue density (arrow in Figure 1) in front of the left kidney, about 31.4 x 27.4 mm in size, with smooth contour.

The significance of multi-discipline healthcare professionals’ input and nursing leaders’ skills in research grant proposal writing

   In the dynamic realm of modern healthcare, research and innovation are imperative for addressing complex chal- lenges [1]. Securing research grants plays a pivotal role in advancing healthcare initiatives [2]. Successful grant pro- posal writing necessitates a profound understanding of the subject matter, adept research methodology, and effective communication of research significance [3].

Nanoparticles as therapeutic agent for ophthalmic biomedical applications

   Nanoparticles are very ultrafine particles, with potential applications in biomedical sciences. The use of nanopar- ticles in ophthalmology is new approach nowadays. The vital nanoparticles possibilities for the ophthalmology are AuNPs and AgNPs. In this review, issues will be deliberated about the application of nanoparticles which includes laser- heated nanoparticles for ophthalmology, and ophthalmic drug delivery. One approach is using gold nanoparticles, as they have several properties and applications in diagnosis and therapy tools.

Laryngeal myxedema, an uncommon complication of severe hypothyroidism: A case report

   Laryngeal myxedema is a rare complication of severe hy- pothyroidism. It may be responsible for upper airway ob- struction and has to be taken into account as an emergency situation. A 65 years old male presented with difficulty in breathing, hoarseness, facial and cervical edema at a Ter- tiary Center. Clinical suspission led to appropriate blood ex- aminations and the diagnosis of laryngeal myxedema was made. The patient was treated with intravenous levothy- roxine and hydrocortisone. Symptoms were alleviated com- pletely and endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy were not necessary. This case indicates that early suspicion, and diagnosis of laryngeal myxedema, a lethal condition, may be challenging, and with prompt medical treatment, intubation may be prevented.

Mini-review: Vitamin D toxicity: Diagnosis, management, and treatment

   Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, is synthesized in the skin through exposure to ultraviolet B-light radiation [1]. Factors such as limited sun exposure and dietary deficiencies contrib- ute to low vitamin D status among many individuals, across all age groups and geographic locations [2,3], and due to its as- sociation with many diseases, supplementing with vitamin D to restore body reserves is highly important [4]. Yet, concurrently, we are observing an increase in reports of toxicity associated with this vitamin as well [5].

Lymphocytes with prolonged filaments in a patient with immune dysfunction

   The cytoskeleton is a complex network of protein fibres found in the cytoplasm of cells, made up of structures such as microtubules, microfilaments (actin) and intermediate fila- ments. The cytoskeleton responds to external and internal stim- uli with rapid orchestrated reorganisation and is involved in pro- cesses such as endocytosis, cell division, intracellular transport, motility and immune function [1]. Patients with actin-related Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) may have defects in hae- matopoiesis and immune cell development, with alterations in recruitment, migration, intercellular and intracellular signalling and the activation of innate and adaptive immune response [2].

Clinical image: Contusive ocular trauma

   Ocular trauma is a frequent reason for consultation. A distinction is made between perforating and contusive trauma. They constitute an ophthalmological emergency requiring rapid management to preserve the visual prognosis. We report the case of a patient who had some sequelae of ocular trauma.

Laboratory perspective of Cold Agglutinin syndrome: A case study

   Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) represents a rare hemolytic disorder, constituting 15-30% of cases within the spectrum of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias (AIHAs) [1,2]. The pathogen- esis of CAD revolves around autoantibodies known as Cold Ag- glutinins (CAs), named for their capacity to induce erythrocyte agglutination at temperatures below 37°C. Those autoantibod- ies typically consist of monoclonal Immunoglobulin (Ig) M type, less commonly IgA or IgG, and they target the carbohydrate antigens on the erythrocyte surface, predominantly antigen I [3-5].

Approach to immunological abortion & chronic inflammation

   Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) is a serious reproduc- tive disorder of pregnancy that presents an unresolved issue in the fields of gynecology and obstetrics. RSA is usually defined as a woman suffering from ≥3 spontaneous abortions with the same sexual partner. The incidence rate of RSA ranges from 1 to 5% in women of childbearing age [1]. Recent research has determined that the etiology of RSA is extremely varied, chiefly advanced high maternal age, inheritable genetic abnormali- ties, anatomical factors, infections, and endocrine dysfunctions. However, in most patients, the cause is unclear.

Advancements in molecular diagnostic tests for indeterminate thyroid nodule cytologies

   Thyroid nodules are a common clinical challenge, with approximately 5-7% of the adult population exhibiting palpable nodules. While the majority of these nodules are be- nign, a subset presents as indeterminate on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), posing a diagnostic dilemma. Molecular diagnostic tests have emerged as promising tools to aid in the management of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the advancements in molecular diagnostic tests for indeterminate thyroid nodule cytologies, focusing on their mechanisms, performance, clinical implications, and challenges.

Acute flare of systemic lupus erythematosus: Importance of c-reactive protein and other laboratory markers in clinical practice

   We would like to present this case to inform practicing clinician the importance of laboratory results in helping us to differentiate between infection and flare up in SLE pa- tients. The initial presentation of fever might be difficult to clearly distinguish between these two but with the help of laboratory results clinician can confidently make a diagno- sis. CRP and ESR are two common tests done for patients presenting with febrile illness. Generally, CRP is elevated in infection while ESR is elevated in inflammatory reactions like SLE flare up.

Case report of intraoperative anaphylactic shock and post operative methemoglobinemia – Cetrimide induced during hepatic hydatid cyst surgery

   Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection most commonly local- ized in the liver. They may not be diagnosed early because they remain asymptomatic at small sizes and may reach large sizes at the time of diagnosis. In this situation, compression symptoms may occur and they may present with serious complications such as rupture and anaphylactic shock, which are rare. Treatment methods are determined by classification according to the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis.

A nomogram utilizing LASSO-conditional logistic regression for predicting delayed post-polypectomy bleeding

   Preventing Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is of great importance, as it is the third most common malignant tumor globally, accounting for approximately 10% of all new cancer cases annually [1,2]. The progression pattern from adenoma to carcinoma is widely accepted to play a crucial role in the development of colorectal cancer [3]. Removal of colonic tumors is effective in reducing the incidence and overall burden of CRC [4,5]. While colonoscopic tumor resection is a safe and effective procedure [6,7], it can still lead to serious complications, including bleeding, perforation, and electrocoagulation syndrome.

Ectropion in a collodion baby: A case report and literature review

   The “collodion baby” phenotype is a rare clinical entity in a heterogeneous group of cornification skin disorders, first described by Hallopeau and Watelet in 1844, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 live births. The collodion phenotype is common to several different forms of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, characterised by xerosis of the skin, either in isolation or in association with other extra-cutaneous signs, particularly ophthalmological, which may affect the functional prognosis as a result of blinding corneal sequelae.

Misidentification of the ovarian vein as the ureter during ureteral reconstructive surgery: A precautionary tale

   A 55-year-old woman with hereditary spastic paraparesis and a neurogenic bladder managed with an indwelling urethral catheter developed two large bladder stones (3 cm and 4 cm stones), a vesicovaginal fistula, and history of kidney stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy. As definitive therapy for her neurogenic bladder, a supravesical urinary diversion with ureteroileal urinary conduit diversion and open cystolithotomy was planned. The vesicovaginal fistula was to be unrepaired and the defunctionalized bladder would be left in situ without performing a cystectomy.

Idiopathic mooren ulcer: About a case

   We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with no particular pathological history who presented with a unilateral, peripheral, hollowing and circumferential corneal ulcer without healthy cornea interval with intense conjunctival hyperemia. The ulcer was treated with antibiotics and healed but without improvement. An etiological assessment did not reveal any other etiology. The introduction of topical corticosteroid therapy brought improvement but with an increase in symptoms when treatment was stopped.

Eye trauma from a piece of wood: About a case

   This is a 6-year-old child who consulted in the ophthalmological emergency room 2 days after his accidental trauma at the end of the woods. Initial clinical examination of the left eye revealed visual acuity at NO light perception, eyelid edema with blood clot. The rest of the exam was difficult to assess due to the pain. The child was taken to the emergency operating room for exploration and treatment after having carried out a CT scan which revealed an intraocular foreign body measuring 8 x 6 mm. Intraocular wooden foreign body visible at the edges of the wound.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Rare disease, tricky diagnosis – Case presentation

   Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare inflammatory dis- ease that leads to stomach and/or small intestine eosinophil infiltration and inflammatory symptoms [1]. While the cause remains unknown, many factors can trigger EGE. Klein classifi- cation divides EGE into three subtypes: mucosal, muscular and serosal and the symptoms depend on the inflamed part of the gastrointestinal tract wall [2,3]. Typical symptoms include ab- dominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, intestinal obstruction and ascites. Exclusion of other causes of tissue eosinophilia and endoscopy with the biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis.

Small bowel obstruction imitating a fatal acute ST elevation myocardial infarction

   ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) that warrants immediate at- tention either by medical or surgical/interventional therapy. The clinical presentation can be elemental to diagnosing a STE- MI however, the revelation on an EKG can prove ischemia caus- ing tissue necrosis and/or myocardial injury. This may very well lead to an eventful cardiac dysfunction then consequentially proceed to arrhythmia and death. Hence, when a high index of suspicion of ACS is on a clinical presentation, it is classified as a medical emergency till proven otherwise.

Artifacts in routine histopathology: Unveiling potential causes of misdiagnosis

   In daily practice, pathologists frequently encounter slides that have been inadequately fixed or mishandled during the tis- sue processing stage, resulting in significant alterations in tis- sue details. The processing of specimens for histopathological examination is prone to both material and human errors, which can give rise to artifacts. These artifacts can cause distortions in normal morphologic and cytologic features, and in severe cases, render the tissue completely unusable [1,2].

Herbal hepatotoxicity caused by kratom

   The liver is the largest exocrine gland and fulfils vari- ous vital functions. Xenobiotic metabolism (including various drugs and pharmacological substances) and detoxica- tion are among the most prominent. During this process, the liver can be damaged. This phenomenon is known as Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) or Herbal-Induced Liver In- jury (HILI). If a herbal product is the cause. Our case report summarizs a 62-year-old patient suffering from HILI after kratom ingestion.

Bioethical aspects of telemedicine

   Medical treatment requires that the patient be present be- fore the physician in order for the physician to examine the current state of the patient, including the physical and mental con- ditions of the patient. The physician will conduct an anamnesis on the patient to obtain any information and find out about the diseases suffered by the patient. By doing so the physician can examine and diagnose the patient diseases and further provide the patient with the right medication or treatment. That correct information can only be done when the patient meets face-to- face with the physician.

Beaver tail liver: An unusual anatomic variant

   We present here the case of a 34-year-old woman, recently diagnosed with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma, who presented to our department for management. A thoracic-abdom- inal-pelvic CT scan performed as part of the extension work-up revealed incidentally an enlargement of the left lobe of the liver surrounding the spleen (Figure 1), giving the appearance of a beavertail liver.

Successful medical management of non-typhoid salmonella associated peritoneal dialysis peritonitis without subsequent relapse or recurrence: A case report and case review

   Peritonitis with Non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS in end- stage kidney disease patients treated with Peritoneal Di- alysis (PD) is extremely rare and has been associated with poor outcomes including death and refractory, recurrent or relapsing infection typically necessitating removal of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. We report the twelfth case of NTS-associated PD peritonitis in a 61-year-old male that was successfully managed by combining the use of Tissue Plas- minogen Activator (TPA) to disrupt the catheter biofilm and a prolonged course of intraperitoneal antibiotics.

Unforeseen risks on the quest to fertility: A case report of a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a man on fertility treatment with clomiphene citrate

   Clomiphene citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modu- lator that is widely used in the treatment of infertility in both male and female populations [1]. While its use in the female population has been widely studied and is used in the manage- ment of a wide array of medical conditions, especially those as- sociated with ovulation, its use in the male population remains controversial. It has been used as an off-label medication in the management of male infertility and hypogonadism since the 1970s but its efficacy has not been well established [2].

Minocycline is effective in treating bullous pemphigoid in a patient with advanced cancer

   Although oral steroid therapy is commonly used to treat pemphigoid, complications associated with steroids often cause several problems in patient with advanced cancer. Al- though the effectiveness of tetracycline antibiotics against pemphigoid has been recently demonstrated, there is still room for debate. We encountered a case in which minocy- cline was effective for bullous pemphigoid in a patient with advanced lung cancer who had developed oral candidiasis during steroid treatment and was unable to continue ste- roid therapy.

Clinical aspects and medico legal issue in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, what is an ethical approach to care?

   Dementia are a class of disease based on several etio- logical factors, clinical pattern, the most common is the Al- zheimer’s disease, followes by the vascular form or mixed (vascular-degenerative), by dementia at Lewy body and by frontotemporal dementia. In Italy the number of people with dementia extimated is about one million of which about the 60%-70% is affected by Alzheimer’s desease.

Interstitial pneumonitis caused by docetaxel

   This clinical case presents a 60-year-old woman with stage IIIA invasive ductal breast carcinoma with hormone receptors and Her2 positive. We initiated neoadjuvant therapy with per- tuzumab, trastuzumab and docetaxel. After two cycles of che- motherapy, the patient suddenly developed fever, dry cough, and dyspnea on minor exertion. The patient required non-in- vasive oxygen. The chest scan revealed bilateral opacities with patchy ground-glass areas (Figures 1 & 2). We started empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics to cover the probable infectious etiology and prednisone 1 mg/kg/day orally because we sus- pected acute pneumonitis caused by docetaxel.

Reactive amyloidosis and end stage renal disease: Two important factors for rapid evolution of constrictive pericarditis

   A 61 years old male patient with reactive amyloidosis was admitted for worsening renal function, signs and symptoms of heart failure and diuresis contraction. Compared to year ago, echocardiogram showed worsening valvular pathology: aortic and mitral insufficiency become severe while aortic and mitral stenosis moderate. There was also a restrictive diastolic pattern with elevated filling pressure but medial mitral annulus tissue-Doppler demonstrated elevated early diastolic velocities (e’). Severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction were also present.

Three cases of medullary arachnoiditis ossificans: A rare condition and comprehensive review

   Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare medical condition that in- volves inflammation of the leptomeninges, a thin membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation leads to the formation of calcifications in the dural sac, which is the protective covering that surrounds the spinal cord. The calci- fications can cause compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots, leading to a range of symptoms including chronic pain, numbness, weakness, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. The condition can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and may re- quire a combination of medical and surgical interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Desmoplastic ameloblastoma of the jaw: An infrequent paediatric case report

   Ameloblastoma is a neoplastic process of the jaw that originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Its early diagno- sis is of particular interest because of the need for resection with a wide margin of safety, which reduces the likelihood of local recurrence. The neoplasia is difficult to differentiate from other common lesions in pediatric patients, such as osteomyelitis, dental cysts, and fibrous lesions. We report a 14-year-old female patient of Asian descent presented with a palpable painful mass in the left jaw region.

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